northern Victoria and the Southern Riverina
including Gunbower National Park
the Murray River downstream of Torrumbarry, the Gunbower Koondrook Perricoota
Forest straddles the Victoria-NSW border and covers about 50,000 hectares.
The 'Forest' includes several lakes, wetlands and sand hills. At the
Torrumbarry end of the forest, away from the waterways, Black Box and
Grey Box are the dominant trees, with Grey Box dominating on slightly
higher, less flood-prone land to the north. But Red Gum is the dominant
tree around wetlands, along the rivers and over much of the remainder
of the forest. In NSW, the eastern half of the forest is called Perricoota
Forest. Further west, it is called Koondrook Forest. In Victoria, between
the Murray River and Gunbower Creek, the forest is called Gunbower Island
Forest. The town of Koondrook is actually in Victoria whilst its twin
town Barham (as distinct from Barmah!) is on the NSW side of the Murray
initiative lists this forest as one of six icon sites in the Murray-Darling
Basin to be protected for their ecological significance. One icon site
(or Significant Environmental Asset) is Gunbower-Koondrook-Perricoota
Living Murray icon sites are
* Barmah-Millewa Forest
* Hattah Lakes
* Chowilla Floodplain, Lindsay and Wallpolla Island
* The Coorong, lower lakes and river mouth, and
* the Murray River channel itself.
is a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention,
JAMBA (Japan-Australia Migratory Bird Agreement) and CAMBA (China-Australia
Migratory Bird Agreement). It is an important breeding ground for a
number of birds, including Yellow-billed Spoonbill, Nankeen Night Heron,
Royal Spoonbill, Intermediate Egret, Great Egret and Australian White
provides habitat for numerous threatened plant and animal species, including
birds, fish and reptiles, and supports colonies of breeding waterbirds
during appropriate seasonal conditions.
As far as
this forest is concerned, The Living Murray initiative aims to
enhance forest fish and wildlife values, ensure successful breeding
of thousands of colonial waterbirds in at least three years in ten,
promote healthy vegetation in at least 30% of the area of the forest
(including much of the flood-dependant River Red Gum forest) and at
least 80% of the wetlands, and increase native fish populations
irrigation, natural river flow patterns differ from those which existed
pre-European settlement. Gunbower Creek and the Murray River now flow
at higher levels throughout summer, whilst winter-spring floods are
usually neither as deep nor as prolonged. The forest is immediately
downstream of Torrumbarry Weir.
water was released into some of the wetlands at various times during 2008 and 2009.
Management of the forest is in the
hands of the Murray CMA (NSW) and and the North Central CMA (Victoria),
each of which has appointed a site manager, plus Parks Victoria (Gunbower National Park). The site managers take it
in turns to act as chief site manager. They are assisted by a project
officer and by a number of advisory committees, one of which is a Co-ordinating
Committee. There is a Community Reference Group to advise the Co-ordinating
Committee and a committee of indigenous (Koori) persons.
The CRG has comprised a representative
from each of the two CMAs, five 'community' representatives and a project
officer. This set up may change now that part of Gunbower Island is a national park.
to restore a natural flooding and drying regime to the forest, a number
of environmental works and measures have been completed or are planned.
In Victoria, a number of regulators have been constructed along Gunbower Creek, the
Murray River and other streams in order to keep water out of the wetlands
for much of the year. Wetlands of the Gunbower National Park and adjoining forest will benefit from works currently under way.
A new regulator
on Little Gunbower Creek was completed in 2007 to allow authorities
to divert environmental water into Black Swamp and to keep water out
at other times. This was one of the first structures to be constructed
under 'The Living Murray' programme. The new regulator on Little Gunbower
Creek was opened for the first time in May 2008 to allow flooding of
wetlands which had been dry for well over a year.
much of this perennial wetland was not flooded for several years, during
which time thousands of saplings were able to survive. Previously, flood
waters drowned and killed young saplings. The regulator is closed most
of the time, preventing creek water from entering the wetland, allowing
the wetland to dry out.
Across the border in NSW, an 80 million dollar project to deliver environmental water to more than 17,000 hectares (52%) of Koondrook-Perricoota Forest was comp[leted in 2013. The project, which took three years to complete, involved the construction of a series of channels and regulators to efficiently and effectively deliver environmental water. Levee banks with a combined length of 43km were constructed. Together with regulators, the channels and levee banks will enable water to be diverted along creeks that feed and drain the forest whilst, at the same time, protecting surrounding farmland from flooding.
forest and its wetlands attract many tourists and brings money into
the region, there's another benefit: the wetlands are habitat for large
numbers of ibis which each day travel to surrounding farms, preying
on insect pests that feed on crops and pastures. At night, large numbers
of micro-bats leave the forest in search of insects, supplementing the work
of the ibis.
people inhabited the area for thousands of years, the Barapa Barapa and Yorta Yorta clans. It is believed that they called the area Kanbowro, meaning 'twisting and tortuous like the neck of a Black Swan'.
or sacred sites have been fenced off, e.g. areas with middens (piles
of shells marking camping sites).
bear evidence that a bark bowl (coolamon), bark shield or bark canoe
has been cut from them. Such trees are referred to as Coolamon Trees.
Yorta Yorta Nation Aboriginal Corporation's deb site
Lower Murray Darling Rivers Indigenous Nations web site
Island lies between an anabranch of the Murray River (Gunbower Creek)
and the Murray River and occupies an area of 24,600ha. Much of the south-western
side has been cleared for farming. But much of the island is covered by Red Gum Forest, Box Forest and wetlands. Late in 2009, both Houses of the Victorian parliament passed legislation to create Gunbower National Park, a reserve which occupies 9,330 hectares (about half of the public land). The national park was officially opened on 30th June 2010. Most of the bushland upstream of Cohuna is in the national park. However there is still a large area of State Forest available for logging, especially near Barham-Koondrook, a twin town with an economy heavily reliant upon the timber industry. Following the declaration of the Gunbower National Park, a large timber mill and associated businesses in Barham closed.
Island supports 8% of Victoria's freshwater meadows. Four of eight wetland
vegetation types are represented.
Island Road runs alongside Gunbower Creek from Cohuna, where it can
be accessed from the main town roundabout, south-east toward Torrumbarry,
where it can be accessed from the Murray Valley Highway (B400) via Burkes
Bridge. One side of the sealed Island Road is farmland; Gunbower Creek
runs roughly parallel on the other side. Several tracks lead from Island
Road into the forest. Between Cohuna and Burkes Bridge, Island Road is a scenic alternative to the Murray Valley Highway.
The NSW topographic map, Keely 1:50,000 covers much
of the island, which is in Victoria. Hayman's Forest Activities Map is also very useful.
Parks Victoria has produced a Gunbower National Park Visitor Guide. The guide includes notes on a forest drive. From Island
Road, take Rifle Butts Road, and then Five Sleeper Track, River Road and Nursery Track back to Island Road.
If, instead of the suggested forest drive, you take Mawson and Garner Tracks to Chettle Track, near the intersection of Garner and Chettle Track, look for a huge red gum, one
of the largest and oldest in the forest. East of the huge tree is a
cormorant rookery. This area is sometimes flooded and inaccessible.
forest drive outlined in the Parks Victoria guide is excellent but can only be completed
in dry weather, e.g. in autumn. Allow several hours for the drive.
If you enter
the forest from Koondrook, a good birding spot is Clump Bend. Look in the Dwarf
Cherry for Gilbert Whistler. Grey-crowned Babblers have roosts here.
For those who prefer paddling to
driving, there is a marked 5km canoe trail at Safes Lagoon near Koondrook. A brochure on the canoe trail
is available from the DSE office in Cohuna. You need to supply your own canoe.
A new 14km walking track has been signposted near Koondrook. The track passes "The Eagle Tree" and a number of cultural sites. Contact the DSE for further information. Apart from wetland areas, the open nature of
the forest allows for pleasant bushwalking using a compass and a topographic
in the left column re access points.
Like The Narrows of the Murray River, Gunbower
Creek is a perched stream, slightly higher than the land either side.
it is contained by natural levees. There is some concern that the creek
may abandon its present course as it is silting up rather quickly.
Frequent flooding enabled a red
gum forest and wetlands to be be created. Local rainfall alone cannot
support the forest.
The main vegetation type is Red
Gum forest (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), especially in the low-lying
north-west section. It is part of Australia's second-largest Red Gum
forest, after the Barmah-Millewa Forest upstream. Red Gum depends upon
flooding for regeneration and survival. Black Box (Eucalyptus largiflorens)
and Grey Box (E. microcarpa) cover the higher ground in the south-west.
Whilst Black Box can withstand a few weeks of flooding every so often,
Grey Box prefers even higher ground which either does not flood or which
floods occasionally for short periods only. When
the floodwaters drain and evaporate, the forest floor is covered by
herbs, grasses and sedges. Wildflowers include Paper Daisies (Everlastings).
Reeds and rushes
grow in swampy areas. Warrego Grass and Wallaby Grass (Danthonia spp)
grow on higher ground. Red Azolla sometimes floats on the water. Black
Box occupies land that is slightly higher and less prone to lengthy
Dwarf Native Cherry (Exocarpus
strictus) and wattles (Acacia spp) grow under the Red Gum.
industry has been important, particularly to the nearby twin town of Barham (NSW) - Koondrook (Victoria) where
there were furniture factories, a veneer plant and saw mills. Soon after the declaration of the Gunbower National Park, one of Barham's large sawmills closed.
Wide-area clear-felling is not
practiced. Habitat trees are left in each coup. Logging is not permitted
within about 50 metres of waterways.
Much of the
island is in a degraded condition (e.g. lots of ugly stumps, loss of
middle layer) due to forestry activities. Some parts are in relatively
good condition, e.g. Wattle Creek along Wee Wee Rup Road. Reedy Lagoon
has been fenced to protect bird habitat.
A Caring for Country grant has been obtained to enhance the condition of vegetation alongside much of Gunbower Creek. Fences have been erected between private and public land, a pest eradication scheme is under way and a weir has been reconstructed in such a way as to allow the passage of fish. A great deal of revegetation work has been undertaken.
Bird observers may wish to check out some reasonably good wetland areas along Gunbower
Creek (eastern end of Island Road) as well as following the two tours
outlined in the Birding
Guide to Cohuna area and Gunbower Island. A local guide will help you to access some of the seldom-visited and better birding areas. About 200 bird species have been observed in the area. A coloured brochure on the birds of the Echuca area may be collected from the Echuca-Moama Visitor Centre; from late May 2011, a Gunbower version will be available from tourist information centres in Gunbower, Cohuna and Kerang..
Basic bush camping is allowed alongside the Murray River and Gunbower Creek. Please remove rubbish as no bins are provided. There is a commercial "holiday park" near Torrumbarry Weir. Accommodation
is available nearby, e.g. in Cohuna, Barham-Koondrook and at the Gunbower Hotel. There are several Bed and Breakfast establishments as well as rentable cottages.
The forest has not been grazed for some time
and an area is to be retained outside Gunbower National Park for logging.
Camping, four-wheel driving, fishing, bird-watching, bush-walking etc
are unaffected and no entry fee is charged.
Gunbower Development Group Inc. has been established by residents who live in or near the township of Gunbower. The aim of the group is to promote tourism. The group has printed a brochure showing photographs of some of the area's many birds. It is in the process of preparing a booklet about the area.
maps: Keely 1:50,000 (Central Mapping Authority of New South Wales);
Region 20 CFA Rural Directory maps 217, 218, 192, 193
Click here to download a map of Gunbower National Park
Parks Victoria's Gunbower National Park Visitor Guide (pdf)
Download Echuca and District BOCA's pdf
birding brochure: Birding
Guide to Cohuna area and Gunbower Island
Red Gum forest on the NSW side of the Murray, downstream of Echuca and
opposite Gunbower Island, is called Perricoota Forest in the south-east
near Moama and Koondrook Forest further downstream near Barham - Koondrook. Part of Australia's
second largest Red Gum forest, it is one of six sites of ecological
significance under the Living Murray initiative. Despite agitation from the National Parks Association of NSW and some other conservation groups, neither Perricoota Forest nor Koondrook Forest is a national park.
has been logged over many decades. Box trees, which are found on the higher
areas, are no longer logged.
An 80 million dollar project to deliver environmental water to more than 17,000 hectares (52%) of Koondrook-Perricoota Forest was completed in 2013. The project, which took three years to complete, involved the construction of a series of channels and regulators to efficiently and effectively deliver environmental water. Levee banks with a combined length of 43km were constructed. Together with regulators, the channels and levee banks will enable water to be diverted along creeks that feed and drain the forest whilst, at the same time, protecting surrounding farmland from flooding.
This is the largest major project completed under The Living Murray Environmental Works and Measures Programme.
Koondrook-Perricoota flood enhancement project (Murray CMA; pdf).
It is hoped that environmental water releases will help conserve the forest's wetlands and help promote
breeding by water birds.
It is hoped
that "permanent" wetlands will contain water for between nine and
twelve months each year. Such wetlands occupy a relatively small area
of the forest, e.g. Reedy Lagoon, Green Swamp. Reedy Lagoon is regarded
as one of the healthiest and best wetlands along the Murray; it contains
relatively few weeds.
wetlands should contain water for between five and ten months at least
six years in every 10.
It is hoped
that areas of Red Gum with a flood-dependant under-storey can receive
water for around four months at least seven years in every 10. The environmental
water release of May 2008 is a step in the right direction.
wetlands should occasionally receive water for between one and nine
water is scarce, only some of the regulators are opened for a few days
over Spring to allow certain areas to flood. To enable native fish to
move up and down river, fish ladders have been installed at obstacles
such as Torrumbarry Weir where traps have been installed to catch the
introduced European Carp, a fish which increases river turbidity and
competes with native fish. It has been found that carp swim higher in
the water than native fish. Most native fish escape being caught by
swimming under the trap. Some captured carp are used in the production
of garden fertiliser. Some of the regulators have been fitted with screens
to prevent the passage of adult carp but which allow access by smaller
Access is from Perricoota Road. This forest
is inaccessible to vehicles after rain and during flood times.
NSW Government Koondrook-Perricoota Forest Flood Enhancement Project Page
Koondrook-Perricoota Flood Enhancemen (Environmental Water Delivery) Project (pdf)
Koondrook-Perricoota Flood Enhancement Works diagrams (pdf)
from foresters, most who visit are water-skiers, anglers or boaters,
many of whom launch their craft at Torrumbarry. There are some delightful
bush camping sites with beaches alongside the Murray River (no facilities).
The best time to visit is usually between December and April. Fires
are not permitted during Summer.
Accommodation is available in Echuca-Moama and Barham-Koondrook.
and Koondrook-Perricoota Forests have a combined area of about 50,000
hectares. The Koondrook and Perricoota Forests are included in the NSW
Central Murray State Forests Ramsar site. It is an important breeding
area for colonial waterbirds and is visited by migratory birds listed
under international treaties with Japan (JAMBA) and China (CAMBA). Interim
objectives and outcomes for actions under the First Step of the Living
Murray initiative is to maintain and restore a mosaic of healthy floodplain
communities, ensuring 80% of permanent and semi-permanent wetlands remains
in healthy condition, 30% of River Red Gum forest remains in healthy
condition, that successful breeding of thousands of colonial waterbirds
occurs in at least three years in ten and that there are healthy populations
of resident native fish in wetlands
One of the
most attractive parts of this forest is in the vicinity of Kate Malone
Bend, where there is a varied under-storey and where fields of everlastings
carpet the forest floor following good rains or floods. At times, everlastings
carpet the forest floor from here for many kilometres westwards toward
Koondrook. This area is ideal for bushwalking and there are secluded
camping sites alongside the Murray. Some riverside camp sites have beaches.
East of Kate Malone Bend is an area of regenerating Box, with lots of
stumps and regrowth from stumps, which lacks a middle storey or under-storey
and which may lack aesthetic appeal. Black Box grows on land which floods
only occasionally for a short time whereas Grey Box prefers higher and
drier land. There are small areas where Yellow Box is dominant and native
Callitris Pine is the dominant tree on some sand hills.
several wetland areas, most of which were deprived of water over
several years prior to 2011. With the completion of engineering works, it is now possible to release environmental water to flood these
areas from time to time, thereby promoting the breeding of waterbirds.
has been set aside for wetlands on the NSW side of the Murray River.
There is a Wetlands Working Group which helps determine the wetlands
to which the environmental water is to be directed. Private wetlands
may be entitled to some of this water. Unfortunately, at least until recently, unlike the case
with Barmah-Millewa, it seems that this water allocation cannot be held
over from year to year. Nor can it be lent to irrigators to be paid
Red Gums has been important to the timber
industry of the nearby town of Barham-Koondrook. Better quality timber
was used in the production of fine Red Gum furniture and veneer. Poor
quality timber and residues are used for firewood. Prior to the recent closure of a large mill, the veneer plant and furtniture works, about 200 people used to make a
living directly or indirectly from the industry, a substantial proportion
of the population of Barham-Koondrook.
conditions, there would be fewer and larger Red Gum trees in the forest
(the weakest saplings died as they failed to compete with stronger ones).
As a result of man's interference, trees grow more closely together.
Therefore, thinning is needed if good timber trees are to develop. Thinning
allows crowns to grow wider and a taller, stronger tree is likely. Regional
foresters have decided to thin sections of this forest, something which
can only be funded whilst firewood prices are favourable. Forestry NSW
- dead trees
are left alone except in a few instances where they appear to be very
- in logging
coupes, two habitat trees are identified per hectare and protected;
- in logging
coupes, two replacement habitat trees are identified per hectare and
left to develop hollows;
- in logging
coupes, a few trees vigorous are selected and set aside for future
and less vigorous red gums are logged; residues will henceforth be
taken for "green firewood" and not left on the forest floor;
are being cut as close to the ground as possible;
- no logging
is to occur within 60 metres of water courses or on sandhills;
- box and
native pine are no longer being logged at all;
with a rich middle storey are left unlogged or logged in such a way
as to protect the middle storey as well as possible (this may involve
leaving part of the area unlogged).
to 25 years after being logged, the area will be inspected again and
further thinning (e.g. of regrowth from stumps) may be carried out.
An aim is to have more very large red gums in the forest. Most trees
of an area are often of similar age; the smaller trees may not be younger
but less vigorous, the ones which would die out over time as a result
of natural selection. A plan of irrigating much of Koondrook Forest
by way of a yet-to-be-constructed channel is possible.
of the managers was to use cattle to help control weeds whilst, at the
same time, promoting local grasses and herbs. Cattle are now excluded from much of the forest.
Bonum Sandhill has been fenced (e.g. to exclude
trail bikes and pest animals). Direct seeding has been undertaken in
an attempt to create a vegetation community typical of pre-European
days. Special emphasis was given to locally endangered plant species
which once grew on sandhills. However, there is presently little or no evidence
of shrubs in the fenced area!
There has been
some concern at the growth of the semi-parasitic Dwarf Cherry in places,
especially alongside the Murray, but this is an aesthetically pleasing
shrub which is very important shrub to birds, providing both protection
smaller State Forest reserves (Guttram in Victoria and Campbells Island in NSW)
just downstream of Barham-Koondrook (see below).
A chief site
manager has been appointed to oversee the management of this environmentally
significant asset. There is a site manager for the Koondrook-Perricoota
Forest (who takes it in turns with the site manager for Gunbower Island
to be chief site manager). The site mangers are assisted by a cross-border
Coordinating Committee, a cross-border Consultative Reference Group (Gunbower-Koondrook-Perricoota
CRG) and traditional (indigenous) landholders. As far as the NSW section
of the forest is concerned, they work in conjunction with the Murray
Catchment Management Authority and Forestry NSW.
maps: Keely 1:50,000 (Central Mapping Authority of New South Wales);
Region 20 CFA Rural Directory maps 217, 218, 192, 193.
Click here to download a pdf of the birding
spots of Perricoota Road and Perricoota Forest
Back to the top of page
Campbells Island State Forest lies north-west of Barham, the western end of Gunbower-Koondrook-Perricoota
Forest. The wetland is called Guttrum Forest on the Victorian side of
the Murray. See
CFA (Vic) Region 20 Rural Directory Map 192 grid reference 360 590.
Map of Location (commercial site).
Guttram State Forest is a 1179 hectare Red Gum wetland in Victoria, north-west of Barham. Access it via Miller Road, which runs of Murrabit Road. The wetland is called Campbell Island State Forest across the Murray in NSW. CFA Rural Directory Map 192 350 380
Benwell State Forest 551 hectares.
Red Gum Swamp Wildlife Reserve is a 148 hectare wetland containing saltbush,
lignum and dead river red gums located south-west of Koondrook.
After examining the VEAC report, the government decided that the above State Forests are to be used to:
(a) produce hardwood timber and other forest products, including domestic firewood
(b) conserve and protect biodiversity, natural landscapes and natural processes
(c) protect significant cultural and historic sites and places, including Aboriginal
cultural sites and places
(d) provide opportunities for recreation (including hunting) and education
(e) provide for flood mitigation;
(f) the following activities be generally permitted:
(i) bushwalking, nature observation, heritage appreciation, picnicking, recreational
(ii) camping, in particular dispersed camping and overnight camping with horses
(iii) dog-walking and camping with dogs
(v) car touring, including four wheel driving, on formed roads and tracks
(vi) mountain bike and trail bike riding on formed roads and tracks
(vii) horse riding on formed roads and tracks
(ix) exploration and mining
(x) research, subject to permit;
(g) the following domestic stock grazing not be permitted.
that the cattle reduce the "fuel" on the forest floor and
lessen the danger of fires. But cattle cause damage. Major damage occurs
on sand ridges where cattle not only prevent the regeneration of banksias,
hop bushes and wattles but may destroy the nesting tunnels of Rainbow
Bee-eaters. They also cause problems in reed bed swamps, pugging the
soil, reducing the vegetation cover and eating the palatable reeds which
protect river banks. They tend to leave less-palatable species such as Giant
Rush (Juncus ingens) which is taking over some areas.
cattle have damaged the river banks.
Cattle grazing is no longer permitted in much of the forest.
Grazing by cattle or sheep may be appropriate in certain areas at certain times of the year (e.g. dry periods over winter to control weeds or to reduce the fire risk).
directly and indirectly employed hundreds of people, especially in the
Barmah-Koondrook area. Commercial logging is no longer permitted in Gunbower National Park. However, a large area of forest is still available to the timber industry. Value-adding seemed destined to become increasingly important
and magnificent furniture is being made from red gum. An expensive laminating
plant was built at Barham but it appears to be inoperative. Red Gum veneer can be used for flooring
and wall panels as well as for table tops and in furniture construction.
Fine quality red gum furniturewas produced in Koondrook, with retail outlets in Koondrook and in Echuca ~ but this enterprise appears to have ceased.
A Redgum Showcase is held in Koondrook each year (often on the first Sunday in November), attracting many visitors who are able to view
examples of fine furniture and tour some of the mills. Each year, there are lots of other attractions many of which are focused on Apex Park Koondrook..
Redgum Showcase Web Site
Bonum Sawmill, Barham (commercial site)
Arbuthnot Sawmills, Barham (commercial site)
unsuitable for forestry are no longer being ring barked: in fact, habitat
trees are retained in forestry coups. Foresters claim that only a small
percentage of the forest is logged each year (there is a 20-year cycle)
and only a fraction of the trees (as low as 20%) in each coupe are logged.
Red Gum is
susceptible to fire, relying on flooding for regeneration.
Most of the
timber extracted from the forest is used for firewood or garden chips.
Much of the firewood and chips are produced from forest residues, from
thinning operations and from trees damaged by fire. Some are critical
of the amount of firewood taken from the forest. Most of the firewood
goes to Melbourne and provincial cities. Some argue that, because smoke
contaminates the atmosphere and adds to greenhouse gases, wood fires
should no longer be permitted. Smoke from wood fires causes some distress
in the neighbourhood, especially to those with respiratory problems.
Gas fires cause less greenhouse pollution and are unlikely to diminish
the air quality of neighbours.
to collect or cut wood from the forest, a permit is necessary. Two chaps
were recently fined around $3,600 for cutting firewood without a permit.
The law is enforced, rangers and police patrolling the forest
and manning entrance points at times.
In view of
the low annual average rainfall of this area, Red Gum requires periodic
flooding. Much of the forest has not received sufficient water over
recent years. In parts of the forest, the trees are stressed and therefore
subject to insect attack, placing their future value as timber trees
at risk. It is in the interest of foresters that all areas of the forest
receive 'floodwaters' from time to time.
Threats to the forest and wetlands
- climate change, resulting in increased temperatures, reduced rainfall and increased incidence of storms
water management (quality, frequency, season, duration)
timber harvesting (e.g. clear-felling, removal of habitat trees, unsustainable
logging, cutting of trees for camp fires)
grazing management (erosion of banks, changed vegetation mix, loss
of soil-vegetation cover, weeds)
(flooding reduces the fire danger; Red Gum is intolerant of fire)
(e.g. Arrowhead, thistles)
animals (e.g. rabbits, brumbies, pig)
- damage to vegetation and stream flows as a result of proposed environmental works
to fish movement
to water movement